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CRISPR has begun to change the future of humanity (X, 1×26 clear)



"Fatal, irresponsible, dangerous, disappointing or unfortunate"The International Controversial Issues are a few qualifications that describe weekly controversies, one of the most controversial experiments under the birth of two innocent innocent twins in the town of Shenzhen: In recent years, we have embarked on a red line in the evolution of species.

However, this is the only one Before we do what we expect. The genetic edition was not ready yet to cure patients. But the CRIRR This is a simple and cheaper device. Let's hope that "the age of genetics" begins.

To investigate the unusual possibilities of genetic editing, we have invited our last episode Clear the X. a Javier Jimenez, Science Editor Xataka Who next? Santi AurojoIn the task of production, it leads us through a world called "We Can Be Gods".

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A short guide to understanding how CRISPR will change the future of human beings

Why are we talking about CRISPR?

This week's news was the birth of two twins (Lulu, Nana) in China. Their DNA Genetically modified by CRISPR. Jiangyi, a professor at the University of Technology and Technology at the University of Southern and Technology University of China, and his team made nine genital mutations from the embryogenic embryos embedded with fifteen embryos. The team says that the first successful successful conception ends in November 2018. Second accounts emerged in the coming months.

The intervention of the CCR5 receptor gene, which is very close to the cells of the immune system, is absence. In short, people with two copies of delta32 mutations HIV prevention Some experts believe that ten "safe" changes can be made to improve genetically modified men, since this is a well-known variation.

Researchers say, the results are not entirely satisfactory. Only one of the girls has a complete edition. The second is genetically mosaic (i.e., others do not replace CCR5 in some cells). But if this is confirmed by the truth, we are facing the first part of human progress, and so far no one dared to even circulate.

How can all this be done?

Crispscause biologist

To understand that, in the 80's, we have to go to Santa Clara's Salinas in the Alicante, where a young Spanish researcher, Francis Mogica, found the strange repetitions of DNA of cells, which seemed important to us, but why? It took us over 20 years to find it a molecular immune system.

When entering a virus proxyite cell (cells with genetic materials) Scattered By means of cytoplas), they capture it and use it in a junkyard for their own purposes, such as the monkeys. For this reason, there is no solution to the creation of systems to overcome them in the cellular evolution. CRISPR: A system that allows them to "make robot portraits" and encourage them (known as Cas9) to cut their genetic material and make it neutral.

In 2012, a French-American research team found that RNA was used to deceive the protein. Thus, we look at the pieces of the gene of the gene, and the will of them will transform. What's more, we've found the simplest, cheapest and most accurate system we encountered.

We can do almost everything in CRISPR: two days before we can imagine the importance of safeguarding the future of the important microorganisms, recovering the vulnerable species, or genetically modified people to make people better. In technical terms, it can be said to be "lemon pear". Over the past decade, we have put in more resources to dig deeper into.

What can you understand? Why do not we have to use it already?

Science

The problem is that there is a high possibility technology, but it is "in infancy": we know about it. As you can see, CRISPR-Cas9 is the most precise device of genome editing This is not the only mechanism involved in the process Those who do it are not accurate.

Cells in our body are molecular systems that pass through DNA in potential malfunctions or dangerous risks. Try turning them when they are found. Each edition has several mechanisms that check the gem for errors, if they exist, they can "fix" our work: you can edit the editable version, reset it or make it very dangerous. This is a lottery.

It's a big offense of CRISPR. When we work with the mouse to give us an idea, Success rate is around 5%. That is, we want every upgrade to our 20s. In science, the solution is simple: mice that do not "saving" in quotation marks are rejected from research. We can not do so with humans.

It's one of the problems we know (we still need to know). For example, there have been studies on the overwhelming Allergic Reaction that could kill patients in the past years. Until we are aware of the dangers of technology, Going beyond that is dangerous.

But what happened in China?

That is why the Chinese case has become very controversial. Researchers have made healthy embryos completely and have been edited to avoid the possibility of infection. and so, Many experts call it intellectually. However, on the table a topic is put on the table.

Can we now use a tool that allows us to do something incredible with our genes? Most experts in Bioenix agree that it is therapeutic method, and use the tools we use It is a good idea to end human sickness and suffering

We talk about improving people, not healing. Questions will succeedWhat if our children are slow or better or better or better? Need to make them stronger, better dancer and artistic expertise?

Some people believe we must do that. Julian Soucescu is a well-known philosopher. These "ethical responsibilities" should be used to "procreate Benedict", ie, to give parents the best opportunities for children (in the field of genetics).

In fact, researchers say George Church, a professor of genetics at Harvard University, has lists of researchers. They think that the lists of genetic modifications will expeditiously expedite our children as soon as possible. But it is very intense sounds.

Is there more expert in that column?

Most of the experts do not, most countries. To be precise, the country selected for testing is China. The Asian giant, unlike other countries, has been tested by an ethical committee in a hospital (seems to have done it) so you will start working. Therefore, China is editing patients from CRISPR since 2015, and other countries delay or delay.

A week ago, we exchanged a report that we talked about in the distant future. No future, We have genetic improvement here.

What will happen now?

Alex Ebby 434004 Unplash

None of them is clear. Many of the responses we see from experts will inspire fear that a failure is in trouble A break in research papers. That happened in 2000 after Jesse Gelsinger's death after Jean Therapy.

But the most problematic is technology is very simple, genetic improvement If China does not overtake Rukin, It's time for someone to do this. How long does it take to see that genetically engineers are more robust and faster? Are the first astronauts moving to Mars to be "ordinary" human beings who can make changes to micro gravity? Will it be long for these rich people to use a genuinely "new social community" and maximize their children?

In short, There are more questions than answersBut life will force you to look at them as soon as possible.

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